Monday, May 25, 2020

White and Slave Gender Roles - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1208 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Gender Roles Essay Did you like this example? The book Harriet A. Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is an autobiography about her life as a slave girl. She described her childhood living with her grandmother and her grandmothers mistress. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "White and Slave Gender Roles" essay for you Create order Then it all changed when her grandmother mistress died and she was sold off to the mistresss son, Dr. Flint. Her life started to become dark and then became darker when she got pregnant. She then did everything in her power to ensure that her children get their freedom. She went against Dr. Flint and was in great distress on the consequence she got into when they manage to get her. She pretended to go to the North but was hiding in a small cramped crawlspace in her grandmothers house. There she saw through a small hole her children grow up without them ever knowing where she was. In the crawlspace, there was no light except the little peek hole she made, no heater or air conditioning so summer where hot and sweaty and winters were freezing cold, and the air was very thin. All her friends and family tried to hide the fact where she is. They all provided her things she needed while she stayed in the crawlspace like food, water, blankets, and etc. They were times at night they would all ow her to go to the storage room so she can stretch her limbs since its so crapped up in the crawlspace. Dr. Flint was determined to find Jacob and bring her back. He sold her children to another man and that man set them free. The children then lived with there grandmother. She hid in the crawlspace from Dr. Flint and anyone who would try to turn her in for seven years. But all was worth the trouble because she managed to move to New York and reunite with her children as freed slaves. In this paper, I am going to argue how Jacobs book illustrates how gender roles in both white and slave, for men and women, are formed based on work, families, and power. One way, we can see gender role construction in Jacobs book is white men worked while white women stayed at home. The same goes for slaves, the men worked hard labor, on the plantations, while women stayed at the masters home. The slave women would take care of the masters children. They stayed beside their master, mistress, or masters children and be ready to aid them whenever theyre needed. Slaves had to be obedient to their masters. If slaves ever go against their masters they would get punished, either by getting beaten up or starved. There are times they would just sell them if the master is ever tired of them. The way slaves are treated causes them to want to try to run away to the North where they can be free. Some succeed but some are captured by slave hunters and be sent back to their masters where they would get punished for trying to run away. When slave get punished some survive the punishment but some would die in the process, that how badly they were treated. The white s arent afraid to kill a slave especially a slave man. The slave tends to try to protect the slave women because they produce the next generation of slaves. Another way, we can see gender role construction in Jacobs book is through families. There are a lot of ups and down when it comes to family, both white and slaves. There are white men who go behind their wives and have affairs with a slave woman. This causes a lot of slave women to get pregnant and make the wifes upset. The wives have to carry the burden of being cheated on, no by another white woman but by a slave woman, so they get jealous. It causes the wives to want to harm the slave women or just get rid of her, but the master is the one that decides what to do with the slave. Slave women are forced to keep the secret of who the father of the baby or it will ruin the white family reputation. Slave families dont live together forever. When a child is born into a slave family they are already considered as slaves. When the children reach a certain age the slave women or mens master put the slave children into an auction. Slaves family when separated they never get to see each oth er again. Whenever a slave wants to get married, they have to get the condolences of their master. Finally, we can see gender role construction in Jacobs book is by power. Men have power, especially white men, they control the entire household. Anything that someone in the family or the slaves want to do something or wants to go out, they have to ask the head of the household permission, meaning the men. Men own the property, they pay the bills and provide for the family. The women are there to support the family by taking care of them. Slave men protect their families but they dont have power than the white men do. White men consider slaves as property than as human beings. Women cant go against their husbands, they have to support them in any way necessary. The children are taught the same way. Once the children are married, the sons become the head of their household and the daughter provide for the family by cooking, cleaning, and etc. Slaves, both men and women, dont have the same rights as the white people, they are there to serve them. And it goes the same for slave childre n. Once the children come to an age where they can be auctioned they will follow the same rules as their parents and every slave that lives in the South. That is why a lot of slaves try to escape to the North, so their children wont have to go through what they went through. In Jacobs book, it illustrates how slaves lived through her eyes as a slave. Its know that slaves dont know how to read and write, and some are taught by their masters. White men back then when they wrote they would maybe change things to make them seems less of bad people. This book puts everything about slavery from a different perspective. But one thing that is troubling is how accurate is the book? Its been said by Jacob that she learned her abcs, but is it enough to write an entire book. I believe she was able to write the book but her editor made changes to the writing so that everyone can understand. Because if you would read a dialogue from the book the writing isnt the same as the rest of the book. Could there be a possibility that the editor would have not written the book exactly how she wanted, did he change a few things? It is a good book if want to see through the perspective of a slave. But is best to keep in mind that the book did come from her but there could be a fe w things the editor possibly changed because how she wrote was hard to understand.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

W.B. Yeats and History Essay - 1729 Words

Yeats in Time: The Poets Place in History All things can tempt me from this craft of verse: One time it was a womans face, or worse-- The seeming needs of my fool-driven land; Now nothing but comes readier to the hand Than this accustomed toil. In these lines from All Things can Tempt Me (40, 1-5), Yeats defines the limitations of the poet concerning his role in present time. These temptations (his love for the woman, Maude Gonne, and his desire to advance the Irish Cultural Nationalist movement) provide Yeats with the foundation upon which he identifies his own limitations. In his love poetry, he not only expresses his love for Gonne, he uses his verse to influence her feelings, attempting to gain her love and†¦show more content†¦The sword signifies his words, which he holds in the upstairs of his mind. This metaphor gives the words great power. Either on a page or spoken, they can be called upon for battle to violently disrupt the world. However, Yeats is not concrete in presenting this perception as accurate. The last two lines highlight the questioning ?Did not? which begins the previous acclamation of poetic influence. Here the speaker gives a different perspective, saying, Yet would be now, could I but have my wish, / Colder and dumber and deafer than a fish. (9-10). Now, Yeatss vision of the poet is cold, completely lacking passion. He is dumb and therefore unable to influence others with his words. He is deaf and therefore unable to be influenced by the words of others. Many levels of interaction in the present world are taken away from the poet by this image; but, the sense of sight remains. Just as the fish can only survive in water, the poet can only function as an observer. In The Lake Isle of Innisfree (15), Yeats takes this purely perceptive role and places it in the context of time. In the last three lines, the poet says (in the present tense), I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore; / While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray/ I hear it in my deep hearts core. (11-12). Throughout these lines, the poet stands completely stationary upon the lifeless pavement, never interacting with his environment. Unlike the deaf fish described in theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Second Coming By W. B. Yeats1190 Words   |  5 PagesWilliam Butler Yeats was a great Irish poet of the twentieth century. During his lifespan World War I occurred, along with its resulting political upheaval. He also lived in the century before the change of the millennium, a theme touched upon in his poems. He, like many other authors, incorporated the events that occurred during his life into his work. This important factor of the time period is clearly re flected in his work, â€Å"The Second Coming.† The critical consensus regarding the poem â€Å"The SecondRead More Use of Symbols in Yeatss Work, A Vision Essay3300 Words   |  14 PagesUse of Symbols in Yeatss Work, A Vision In his 1901 essay Magic, Yeats writes, I cannot now think symbols less than the greatest of all powers whether they are used consciously by the masters of magic, or half unconsciously by their successors, the poet, the musician and the artist (p. 28). Later, in his introduction to A Vision, he explains, I put the Tower and the Winding Stair together into evidence to show that my poetry has gained in self possession and power. I owe this changeRead MoreYeats Essay2604 Words   |  11 PagesW.B Yeats Essay Write an essay in which you give your reasons for liking/not liking the poetry of W.B Yeats. Support your points by reference to or quotation from, the poems that are on your course. 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In order to effectively analyze Things Fall Apart as a novelRead MoreOverview of Three Interpretations of Samuel Becketts Waiting for Godot3226 Words   |  13 Pagesused to supporting religion, but are used to mock and question the validity of biblical tenets. Beckett‘s usage of biblical allusions in his works, in fact, is a proof of absurdity of the humankind‘s beliefs in religion through the course of history on the one hand, which support the absurdity of existence on the other hand. In doing so, the spectators and readers of his plays are encouraged to think about the truthfulness of religion once more (Shobieri 290).† Shobieri furthers his argumentRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography on the Prevelence of Rape in Shakespeares Work909 Words   |  4 Pagesdevelops in the context of mistaken identities,(75) which arise from men playing female characters. Within the chapter, Kemp separates her discovery of characters into genres and inductively reasons her argument by building on evidence available from history to construct conclusions regarding Shakespeares intentions. Although Kemp offers a comprehensive chapter, her explanations rely heavily on summary, which occasionally obscures her argument. Kemp acknowledges Shakespeares cunning use of female willRead MoreIrish Nationalists Struggle for Independence from Britain957 Words   |  4 PagesIrish Nationalists attempted to establish continuity with what they believed to be appropriate or suitable aspects of Irish history and culture. These attempts lead to both the revival and invention of a culturally distinct Irish heritage not associated with British rule in order to justify a sense of nationhood and to support the Irish struggle for Independence (Hobsbawm in Laurence, A p176) (Laurence, A p.160). Whilst there is no single definition of Irish Nationalism, as the various groups andRead MoreSuperb Motivation. Literature Possesses The Capability1749 Words   |  7 PagesSuperb Motivation Literature possesses the capability to vastly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literature drive this powerful influence. Few people in the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical views as T.S. Eliot, and by disseminating his opinions throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the fall of 1888, T.S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influentialRead MoreThe Impact Of Literature On Literature And The Social View Of Poetry1724 Words   |  7 Pages Literature possesses the capability to vastly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literature drive the powerful influence. Few people in the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical views as T.S. Eliot, and by disseminating his opinions throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the f all of 1888, T.S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influential poets of all time,Read MoreEssay Postmodernism in Heaneys Poems Bogland and Tollund Man2841 Words   |  12 PagesHeaneys essay on a poem called The Bog People by P.V Globe. Chapter three is about the poem The Tollund Man and refers it to the deadly and violent features existing in The Bog People. It discusses how the corpses from ancient world and primitive customs present themselves to the poem. Its also about the strangeness in todays conditions and how Heaney changes his descriptive statements and emotional account into images in his poetry. It says that what is considered is the history of present

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Slavery Of South Africa - 1030 Words

When democracy was ushered in after the fall of the apartheid regime, the nation went through radical change. Not only was the stalwart Nationalist Party replaced by the liberation leaders of the African National Congress, but the citizens of South Africa also had to replace their apartheid era thinking with that of a newly liberated and enlightened mind. Issues of national importance suddenly affected everyone – the movement from apartheid rule to democracy brought about a new set of national values that were based on the protection of and respect for all citizens of South Africa. When it came to debates around the decriminalization of sex work, the discourse changed completely from the apartheid to the post-apartheid era. Arguments in favor of decriminalizing sex work during apartheid were mainly based on issues of public health and the benefits of increased leniency; arguments in the post-apartheid era were heavily influenced by the new constitution and its accompanying Bil l of Rights, and thus these debates were centered on attempting to advance the process of democracy by affording sex workers their basic human rights. This paper will attempt to decipher the ways in which the debates around the decriminalization of sex work evolved during this time period, and how the racial relations between South Africans at the time played an important role in defining these discussions. One would find themselves extremely lost if they attempted to understand the lack of interestShow MoreRelatedSlavery During The Early Times Of South Africa2686 Words   |  11 PagesSlavery has been around almost since the beginning of time. It has a long history of violence, brutality, and unforgiving labor. Part of slavery’s history involves the early development of South Africa when in 1658 the Dutch brought the first slaves to the soil of the cape colony. Being brought over for labor, the slaves might not have been able to bring much with them, but they did bring their particular cultures. Without realizing it, the Dutch elite that brought the slaves to the colony addedRead MoreSlavery, Colonialism and Capitalism783 Words   |  3 PagesSlavery, Colonialism and Capitalism, it can be said that there is a relationship between these three systems. There are many different views on this topic, the main views being the Liberal-pluralists and the Radical revisionists who under stand this relationship from different perspectives. To prove the connection between these three systems that impacted many countries this essay shall make close reference to a number of sources. Cedric Robinson (1984: 57) discusses the fact that slavery lead toRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Olandah Equiano1716 Words   |  7 Pagesprovides a view of Africa and the rest of the world from the perspective of either an African taken into slavery early in his life or a slave of African descent born in the British colonies. Olandah Equiano’s narrative reveals more about the African Diaspora than it does African history itself, particularly with his birthplace called into question. If he was born in Africa as he claims, Equiano’s narrative provides a primary source for the history of the slave trade in Africa and Nigerian historyRead MoreAbolition of Slaver in the Cape1084 Words   |  5 PagesThe abolition of slave trade was passed by the British Parliament on 24 August 1833. This affected South Africa , which was a British colony at the time, as many colonists at the Cape had lots of capital invested in their slaves. Colonists were particularly annoyed bec ause payment of the slaves was to be collected personally in England, and in many cases the cost of the trip would be more than the money received. (www.sahistory.org.za) In order to answer this key question, information relating theRead MoreNorth and South on Slavery1040 Words   |  4 PagesThe North and South have very different views on slavery. This has lead to lots of tension and fighting. When people were first settling here they had slaves. It has been going on for almost 100 years. Starting around the Revolutionary war the North became opposed to slavery. They had less use for them as time went on. The South, on the other hand, felt they needed slavery. They had to harvest tobacco and cotton as fast as possible. They knew they couldn’t do it themselves so they bought lots ofRead More slavery in 18th century Essay956 Words   |  4 Pagesslavery in 18th century Despite the horror of the word slavery we have to admit that slaves have played a big role in rising big empires. For example the Egyptians used slaves to build their majestic pyramids, the Chinese and Indian used slaves for large-scale construction and agricultural and the Hebrews also used slaves. Slaves were brought from Africa to the British American colonies to work in agriculture and farming, which among other factors made the British colonies in America become soRead MoreThe Slavery Of The North And South Between 1700 And 17991072 Words   |  5 PagesIn the Western countries including America, most of the nations incorporated provisions for slavery within their structure of governance. As slavery took roots in the North and South between 1700 and 1799, it influenced political, social and economic structures of the two regions throughout the 18th century. Towards the end of 17th century, European masters embarked on granting independence to their colonies. As the European colonies in the North gained independence, residents of the independentRead MoreHistory : Existence Of Slavery Essay1596 Words   |  7 PagesKristin Ikeler History 1301 Existence of Slavery in America One of the historic foundations that the United States was formed on was known as slavery. Slavery had such an immense impact on American history from the early sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. It has facilitated in shaping the modern world, in addition to slavery had a strong role in forming the United States Constitution as we know it today. Slavery refers to an individual who is owned by others andRead MoreThe Impact of Slavery on African Society Essay1149 Words   |  5 PagesThe Impact of Slavery on African Society Slavery has played a strong role in African society from as early as prehistoric times, continuing to the modern era. Early slavery within Africa was a common practice in many societies, and was very central to the country’s economy. Beginning around the 7th century, two groups of non-African slave traders significantly altered the traditional African forms of slavery that had been practiced in the past. Native Africans were now being forced to leave theRead MoreAp U.S. History Chapter 161577 Words   |  7 PagesChapter 16 THE SOUTH AND SLAVERY, 1793–1860 1. Part Three Introduction This introduction gives you a preview of the authors’ answers to certain key questions about the causes and consequences of the nation’s â€Å"awesome trial by fire,† the Civil War. Look at this section and list three major questions you think the authors will be addressing in the next seven chapters. (1) (2) (3) 2. Southern Economy and Social Structure a. Explain the connection between the invention

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Foundation Information Management Systems †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Foundation Information Management Systems? Answer: Introducation The company was established in 1981 and is listed in NYSE as international consulting and IT services based organization. The number of people of working for the company is more than one lakhs ninety eight thousand (Verbeke, 2013). The company started with a capital of two hundred and fifty dollars and has now risen to approx ten billion US dollar company with high level of market capitalization of around thirty four billion US dollars. Overall organization business strategy The company follows the following business strategy: - Building an organization case for adoption of SOA. Assessment of enterprise preparation for the adoption of SOA across all kind of three angles that are process, people and technology. The overall assessment also covers the areas like architecture, infrastructure, governance and the compliance with present SOA based projects (Grover, 2016). Customization as per maturity model offered by SOA that defines the basic changes also states for the services based enterprise with related KPI and also enabling plan for the overall changes. Information technology IT strategy and how it served to accomplish the organization business strategy Following are the IT strategy taken up by the company: - IT strategy with a plan development: creating diverse kind of IT strategies that ensures that there is proper delivery of business agenda, building business cases that ensure the calculation of the delivery in order to achieve high business value. It is also important to agree with current IT strategy that comes with clear set of expectations with all the shareholders and how the strategy will be executed. Technology based innovation: by adopting different and advanced tools of IT in an proactive manners paves a way of using the technology to ensure that innovation exist within the business and also happens to include following elements: - Enabling the future watch to create business awareness based on trends of technology that provides opportunities to conduct new kind of things or for so many present things for faster and cheaper services (McGrath, 2013). Evaluation of all possible advantages by applying the present set of technology for the effective business process along with documentation of all kind of risks or costs. The IT services offer the following: - Setting an impactful IT operations based models for retaining IT organization Decreasing the level of security and asset based loss with risks at the time of transferring the ownership. Explain in depth how the company uses IT to support or enable its operations, competitive strategies and business processes. The strategic direction taken up by Infosys as India is considered as one of the emerging company on international platform and there are still many kinds of grounds that can be covered by the company at local level as well. Because of many reliable and trusted IT based company in India, the software industry has achieved an international status with highly trusted and value adding services on global platform (Motohashi, 2015). The company is also known to have some of the best workforce working globally and this is why the company must come up with a strategy for the global platform by aiming on many diverse economies all across the world rather just limiting the focus just on some developed countries primarily USA. The company is also trying to come out from its image as an Indian country with cheap workforce in order to boost the revenue in the international market. It is important now that the company focuses more on appointing so many ethnic and multi culture workforce internati onally. In order to improve the image of the brand and the globalization, the company must aim on the process of standardization of its current software based products and this is accomplished by listing Infosys on different stock markets worldwide (Rothaermel, 2015). Information systems and technologies for the company used by each department Following are the information system and technologies for the company: - Revenue assurance solutions: the modular content accelerator like MCA answers for IPTV setting along with product innovation centre that offers an interface that exist between the stakeholders as well as consumer based marketing along with IT. Billing based operations: BPO of the company provides the customers with a flexible place by taking an improved business model. This further has resulted in a more faster tactics based on Turn Around Time and important cost saving techniques for the consumers (Da Xu, 2016). CRM based techniques: in the current time, CRM is an integral part of the communication industry. The company also offers a huge range of services across many products of CRM which starts from basic structuring of the plan to execution along with post product based support. Challenges faced by the company are aim on new revenue model in market, complicated pricing methods, rise in channel of efficiency with aim of the customer retention and churning out the reward for loyal consumers. The solutions provided by the company are mentioned below: - Oracle based technology provide for a solution where the company provides a pre integrated suite along with offering a leverage based oracles which is also very comprehensive offerings for the current telecom sector. It also offers a state of art based associated with the answer that can incubate complicated answers based concepts with model answers to particular customers issues that shows diverse trends of the industry (Heath et al, 2013). Consolidation of data centre: decrease in number of physical boxes by utilizing technology of virtualization. Reduction in the level of complexities of managing different kind of services. The solution provided by Infosys for the data centre also helps in consolidating the solution in order to achieve effective time management along with decrease in the cost to lower level (Raghunath Rose, 2016). Does the company outsource its information systems? The company manages the complete outsourcing venture to provide a distinct experience by evaluating the needs in order to devise an outsourcing strategy, carry the trial to set the proof for number of concepts, making sure that the performance is best during the transition on offshore. The business also covers management of the project at implementation as well as business level. Contribution of information systems in success of the company Following is the contribution of information system: Management of risk: The experts of Infosys help the IT team and tools that helps in analyzing the current market for the industries like banking and finance companies. The risk management technology also assists in executing as well as properly integrating the process that evaluates the risk associated data and proper level of liquidity. Laundering services for anti money: - rise in the level of crimes in banking and other financial industry make a lot of demand for the sake of security of the customer data. The company and its AML application also saves for many banking and finance based company to save the capital and data (Gupta Dzharova, 2014). Mobile banking: the companys banking services helps the organization to retain the satisfaction level of consumer along with various updates through SMS services about the banking detail; Mobile Banking also provides a lot of flexibility for the current age of banking industry. Role of CIO in the company The CIO of the company who is also called as Chief Information Officer along with the team helps in creating right value for the shareholder through defining, prioritizing and implementing for an agreed level of transformation in technology based roadmap and one that is completely informed by desired business capacities. CIO also has to struggle with their inability to form an alignment in IT strategies and business operations. It is usually a challenge to properly articulate the advantages of the business of large scale technology initiative and which often see failure in providing on the business case (Gupta Dzharova, 2014). The company also provides executive with number of advisory based services to CIO around particular kind of fields which also happen to include: - In order to have changes roadmap it is important to grow a modification with roadmap that directly aligns with organization as well as with IT goals. Modernization in technology: to establish the strategy to establish the technology with company based landscape. Cost optimization of IT: in order to grow the strategy and implementing the planning in order to optimize the cost of IT. Application based on portfolio rationalization: to grow a strategy with rationalization for apps based on aligning the processes for core business (Gupta Dzharova, 2014). Future solutions How can data mining be used to achieve the goal to increase revenues from existing customers? IT can assist diverse mining based companies by manufacturing in effectiveness to save the level of productivity, decrease the cost and increase level profits. Information technology is performed by giving important technologies along with right applications to help the company with right kind of intelligence in order to improve the procedure, to reap business advantages and also competitive internationally (Gupta Shapiro, 2014) Reference Da Xu, L. (2016, October). Keynote Speeches-3 abstracts. InAdvanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC), 2016 IEEE(pp. 1-7). IEEE. Grover, V. M. (2016). Alignment of Business Strategy and Innovation Strategy: Strategic Benefits.Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research,3(1). Gupta, S., Dzharova, H. (2014). Innovation and adaptation: Continuing the Infosys journey: In conversation with SD Shibulal, Co-founder, CEO Managing Director, Infosys.IIMB Management Review,26(4), 249-256. Gupta, S., Shapiro, D. (2014). Building and transforming an emerging market global enterprise: Lessons from the Infosys journey.Business Horizons,57(2), 169-179. Heath, D., Singh, R., Ganesh, J., Taube, L. (2013). Building thought leadership through business-to-business social media engagement at infosys.MIS Quarterly Executive,12(2). McGrath, R. G. (2013).The end of competitive advantage: How to keep your strategy moving as fast as your business. Harvard Business Review Press. Motohashi, K. (2015).Global business strategy: Multinational corporations venturing into emerging Markets. Springer Science+ Business Media. Raghunath, S., Rose, E. L. (Eds.). (2016).International Business Strategy: Perspectives on Implementation in Emerging Markets. Springer. Rothaermel, F. T. (2015).Strategic management. McGraw-Hill Education. Verbeke, A. (2013).International business strategy. Cambridge University Press.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Democracy Debate in Herodotus

Democracy Debate in Herodotus Herodotus, the Greek historian known as the Father of History, describes a debate on the three government types  (Herodotus III.80-82), in which proponents of each type tell whats wrong or right with democracy. 1. The monarchist  (supporter of rule by one person, be it a king, tyrant, dictator, or emperor) says freedom, one component of what we today think of as a democracy, can be given just as well by monarchs. 2. The oligarch  (supporter of rule by a few, especially the aristocracy but could also be the best educated) points out the inherent danger of democracy mob rule. 3. The pro-democracy speaker (supporter of rule by the citizens who in a direct democracy all vote on all issues) says in democracy magistrates are held accountable and are selected by lot; deliberation is made by the entire citizen body (optimally, according to Plato, 5040 adult males). Equality is the guiding principle of democracy. Read the three positions: Book III 80. When the tumult had subsided and more than five days had elapsed, those who had risen against the Magians began to take counsel about the general state, and there were spoken speeches which some of the  Hellenes  do not believe were really uttered, but spoken they were nevertheless. On the one hand Otanes urged that they should resign the government into the hands of the whole body of the Persians, and his words were as follows: To me, it seems best that no single one of us should henceforth be ruler, for that is neither pleasant nor profitable. Ye saw the insolent temper of Cambyses, to what lengths it went, and ye have had experience also of the insolence of the Magian: and how should the rule of one alone be a well-ordered thing, seeing that the monarch may do what he desires without rendering any account of his acts? Even the best of all men, if he were placed in this disposition, would be caused by it to change from his wonted disposition: for insolence is engendered in him by the good things which he possesses, and envy is implanted in man from the beginning; and having these two things, he has all vice: for he does many deeds of reckless wrong, partly moved by insolence proceeding from satiety, and partly by envy. And yet a despot at least ought to have been free from envy, seeing that he has all manner of good things. He is however naturally in just the opposite temper towards his subjects; for he grudges to the nobles that they should survive and live, but delights in the basest of citizens, and he is more ready than any other man to receive calumnies. Then of all things he is the most inconsistent; for if you express admiration of him moderately, he is offended that no very great court is paid to him, whereas if you pay court to him extravagantly, he is offended with you for being a flatterer. And the most important matter of all is that which I am about to say:he disturbs the customs handed down from our fathers, he is a ravisher of women, and he puts men to death without trial. On the other hand the rule of many has first a name attaching to it which is the fairest of all names, that is to say Equality; next, the multitude does none of those things which the monarch does: offices of stat e are exercised by lot, and the magistrates are compelled to render account of their action: and finally all matters of deliberation are referred to the public assembly. I therefore give as my opinion that we let monarchy go and increase the power of the multitude; for in the many is contained everything. 81. This was the opinion expressed by Otanes; but Megabyzos urged that they should entrust matters to the rule of a few, saying these words: That which Otanes said in opposition to a tyranny, let it be counted as said for me also, but in that which he said urging that we should make over the power to the multitude, he has missed the best counsel: for nothing is more senseless or insolent than a worthless crowd; and for men flying from the insolence of a despot to fall into that of unrestrained popular power, is by no means to be endured: for he, if he does anything, does it knowing what he does, but the people cannot even know; for how can that know which has neither been taught anything noble by others nor perceived anything of itself, but pushes on matters with violent impulse and without understanding, like a torrent stream? Rule of the people then let them adopt who are foes to the Persians; but let us choose a company of the best men, and to them attach the chief power; for in t he number of these we shall ourselves also be, and it is likely that the resolutions taken by the best men will be the best. 82. This was the opinion expressed by Megabyzos; and thirdly Dareios proceeded to declare his opinion, saying: To me it seems that in those things which Megabyzos said with regard to the multitude he spoke rightly, but in those which he said with regard to the rule of a few, not rightly: for whereas there are three things set before us, and each is supposed to be the best in its own kind, that is to say a good popular government, and the rule of a few, and thirdly the rule of one, I say that this last is by far superior to the others; for nothing better can be found than the rule of an individual man of the best kind; seeing that using the best judgment he would be guardian of the multitude without reproach; and resolutions directed against enemies would so best be kept secret. In an oligarchy however it happens often that many, while practising virtue with regard to the commonwealth, have strong private enmities arising among themselves; for as each man desires to be himself the lea der and to prevail in counsels, they come to great enmities with one another, whence arise factions among them, and out of the factions comes murder, and from murder results the rule of one man; and thus it is shown in this instance by how much that is the best. Again, when the people rules, it is impossible that corruption should not arise, and when corruption arises in the commonwealth, there arise among the corrupt men not enmities but strong ties of friendship: for they who are acting corruptly to the injury of the commonwealth put their heads together secretly to do so. And this continues so until at last some one takes the leadership of the people and stops the course of such men. By reason of this the man of whom I speak is admired by the people, and being so admired he suddenly appears as monarch. Thus he too furnishes herein an example to prove that the rule of one is the best thing. Finally, to sum up all in a single word, whence arose the liberty which we possess, and who gave it to us? Was it a gift of the people or of an oligarchy or of a monarch? I therefore am of opinion that we, having been set free by one man, should preserve that form of rule, and in other respects also that we should not annul the customs of our fathers w hich are ordered well; for that is not the better way. Source: Herodotus Book III

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Steinbeck's depiction of the struggle of Agricultural workers during Essay

Steinbeck's depiction of the struggle of Agricultural workers during the Depression, his role as a social commentator, and its impact upon his work - Essay Example The novels also serve the purpose of a social documentary and present a picture of the prevailing systemic injustices in the United States. It is fashionable with the new breed of novelists to separate politics from art. But in the case of John Steinbeck, this distinction is not evident. The author, in the process of creating a work of art had also taken upon himself to ask questions of social injustices in general and economic disparities in particular. Hence, Steinbeck’s body of work are in essence are full of his own perspective on the state of rural American society; the medium of the novel have given Steinbeck the requisite scope and opportunity to fulfill his role as a social commentator. The rest of the essay will cite instances from the two novels as well as foray into the biographical aspects of the author himself to support this assertion. To understand this social activist trait in Steinbeck’s character one has to look at the experiences and circumstances that shaped his vision of America. Firstly, his years as an adolescent in Salinas, where he got a first hand experience of his parents’ struggle for survival is a formative influence. It is the next phase of his life however, that will prove more important – his long-time relationship with the radical social worker Carol Henning. The influence of Carol Henning cannot be underestimated, for her socialist views on life had clearly rubbed off on Steinbeck, which is evident from the earliest journalistic assignments that Steinbeck undertook. His years as a novice journalist also had a key role in the shaping of his character, for these early writing assignments were the foundations for his later literary pursuits. In both the works in discussion – The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men, the influences of these formative stages of his early l ife are quite obvious. While Steinbeck never really espoused a